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Here is a list of references I have collected during my research of filled pauses. Each link below leads to a page regarding that referenc.  Each reference page contains an abstract (disclaimer) or summary along with my own notes on the relevance of the research report to the study of filled pauses and various other comments (notes and comments are still in-progress). For on-line references, please be sure also to check my list of web links.

Journal Articles, etc.

1992 To Er (or Um) is Human. In Discover, 13/1: 8+.
Airenti, G., B. Bara, & M. Colombetti 1993 Failures, exploitations and deceits in communication. In Journal of Pragmatics 20/4: 303-26.
Albrechtsen, D., B. Henriksen & C. Faerch 1980 Native speaker reaction to learners' spoken interlanguage. In Language Learning 30/??: 365-396.
Anisfield, M., N. Bogo, & W. Lambert 1962 Evaluational Reactions to Accented English Speech. In Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 65/4: 223-31.
Ball, P. 1975 Listeners' Responses to Filled Pauses in Relation to Floor Apportionment. In British Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology 14/1: 423-424.
Beattie, G. 1977 The dynamics of interruption and the filled pause. In British Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology 16/3: 283-284.
Brennan, S. & M. Williams 1995 The feeling of another's knowing: Prosody and filled pauses as cues to listeners about the metacognitive states of speakers. In Journal of Memory and Language 34/??: 383-398.
Christenfeld, N. 1994 Options and Ums. In Journal of Language & Social Psychology 13/2: 192-199.
Christenfeld, N. 1995 Does it Hurt to Say Um? In Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 19/3: 171-186.
Christenfeld, N. 1996 Effects of a Metronome on the Filled Pauses of Fluent Speakers. In Journal of Speech & Hearing Research 39/6: 1232-1238.
Christenfeld, N. & B. Creager 1996 Anxiety, Alcohol, Aphasia, and Ums. In Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 70/3: 451-460.
Christenfeld, N., S. Schachter, & F. Bilous 1991 Filled Pauses and Gestures: It's Not Coincidence. In Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 20/1: 1-20.
Clark, H. 1994 Managing Problems in Speaking. In Speech Communication 15/??: 243-250.
Cook, M. 1971 The incidence of filled pauses in relation to part of speech. In Language & Speech 14/2: 135-139.
Fayer, J. & E. Krasinski 1987 Native and Nonnative Judgments of Intelligibility and Irritation. In Language Learning 37/3: 313-326.
Goldman-Eisler, F. 1961 A Comparative Study of Two Hesitation Phenomena. In Language and Speech 4/??: 18-26.
Goldman-Eisler, F. 1972 Pauses, Clauses, Sentences. In Language and Speech 15/??: 103-13.
Griffiths, R. 1990 Pausology and Listening Comprehension: Theory, Research and Practice. In JALT Journal 12/??: 99-120.
Griffiths, R. 1991 Pausological Research in an L2 Context: a Rationale, and Review of Selected Studies. In Applied Linguistics 12/4: 345-64.
Jurich, A. & J. Jurich 1974 Correlations among Nonverbal Expressions of Anxiety. In Psychological Reports 34/??: 199-204.
Jurich, A. & C. Polson 1985 Nonverbal Assessment of Anxiety as a Function of Intimacy of Sexual Attitude Questions. In Psychological Reports 57/??: 1247-1253.
Kasl, S., & G. Mahl 1965 The Relationship of Disturbances and Hesitations in Spontaneous Speech to Anxiety. In Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1/5: 425-433.
Kemper, S. 1992 Adults' Sentence Fragments: Who, What, When, Where, and Why. In Communication Research 19/4: 444-458.
Kowal, S. & D. O'Connell 1980 Pausological research at Saint Louis University. In Dechert, D. & M. Raupach (eds.). Temporal Variables in Speech: Studies in Honour of Frieda Goldman-Eisler. pp. 61-66. The Hague: Mouton.
Kowal, S., M. Bassett, & D. O'Connell 1985 The Spontaneity of Media Interviews. In Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 14/1: 1-18.
Krause, M. & M. Pilisuk 1961 Anxiety in Verbal Behavior: A Validation Study. In Journal of Consulting Psychology 25/5: 414-419.
Lallgee, M. & M. Cook 1969 An experimental investigation of the function of filled pauses in speech. In Language and Speech 12/??: 24-29.
Lambert, W., R. Hodgeson, R. Gardner, & S. Fillenbaum 1960 Evaluational Reactions to Spoken Languages. In Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 60/1: 44-51.
Levin, H., I. Silverman, & B. Ford 1967 Hesitations in Children's Speech During Explanation and Description. In Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 6/??: 560-564.
Maclay, H. & C. Osgood 1959 Hesitation Phenomena in Spontaneous English Speech. In Word, 15/??: 19-44.
Mahl, G. 1956 Disturbances and Silences in the Patient's Speech in Psychotherapy. In Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 53/??: 1-15.
Mahl, G. 1959 Measuring the Patient's Anxiety during Interviews from 'Expressive' Aspects of His Speech. In Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences 21/??: 249-257.
Martin, J. 1967 Hesitation in speaker's production and listener's reproduction of utterances. In Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 6/??: 903-909.
Martin, J. 1968 Temporal Word Spacing and the Perception of Ordinary, Anomalous and Scrambled Strings. In Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 7/??: 154-157.
Martin, J. & W. Strange 1968 The perception of hesitation in spontaneous speech. In Perception and Psychophysics 3/6: 427-438.
Murata, K. 1994 Intrusive or co-operative? A cross-cultural study of interruption. In Journal of Pragmatics 21/4: 385-400.
Paul, E., K. White, J. Speisman, & D. Costos 1987?? Marital Conflict and Adjustment: Speech Nonfluencies in Intimate Disclosure. In Journal of Genetic Psychology 149/2: 175-189.
Pope, B., T. Blass, A. Seigman, & J. Raher 1970 Anxiety and Depression in Speech. In Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 35/1: 128-133.
Ragsdale, J. 1976 Relationship between hesitation phenomena, anxiety and self-control in a normal communication situation. In Language and Speech 19/??: 257-65.
Reich, S. 1980 Significance of Pauses for Speech Perception. In Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 9/4: 379-89.
Reynolds, A. & A. Paivio 1968 Cognitive and emotional determinants of speech. In Canadian Journal of Psychology 22/3: 164-175.
Rochester, S. 1973 The significance of pauses in spontaneous speech. In Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 2/1: 51-81.
Rochester, S. & J. Gill 1973 Production of Complex Sentences in Monologues and Dialogues. In Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior 12/2: 203-210.
Sacks, H., E. Schegloff, & G. Jefferson 1974 A Simplest Systematics for the Organization of Turn-taking in Conversation. In Language 50/??: 696-735.
Safire, W. 1991 Impregnating the Pause. In New York Times Magazine 16 June 1991: 8.
Schachter, S., N. Christenfeld, B. Ravina, & F. Bilous 1991 Speech Disfluency and the Structure of Knowledge. In Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 60/3: 362-367.
Shriberg, E. 1995 Acoustic properties of disfluent repetitions. In Proceedings of the International Congress of Phonetic Sciences 4, Stockholm, Sweden, 13-19 August: 384-387.
Shriberg, E. 1996 Disfluencies in SWITCHBOARD. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Spoken Language Processing Vol. Addendum, 11-14. Philadelphia, PA, 3-6 October.
Shriberg, E., R. Bates, & A. Stolcke 1997 A prosody-only decision-tree model for disfluency detection. In Proceedings of Eurospeech 97, Rhodes, Greece.
Shriberg, E. & R. Lickley 1993 Intonation of clause-internal filled pauses. In Phonetica 50/??: 172-179.
Shriberg, E. & A. Stolcke 1996 Word predictability after hesitations: A corpus-based study. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Spoken Language Processing 3: 1868-1871.
Siegman, A. & B. Pope 1965 Effects of Question Specificity and Anxiety-producing Messages on Verbal Fluency in the Initial Interview. In Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2/4: 522-530.
Siegman, A. & B. Pope 1966 Ambiguity and Verbal Fluency in the TAT. In Journal of Consulting Psychology 30/3: 239-245.
Smith, V. & H. Clark 1993 On the course of answering questions. In Journal of Memory and Language 32/??: 25-38.
Stolcke, A. & E. Shriberg 1996 Automatic linguistic segmentation of conversational speech. In Proceedings of the  International Conference on Spoken Language Processing 2: 1005-1008.
Stolcke, A. & E. Shriberg 1996 Statistical language modeling for speech disfluencies. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing 1: 405-408. Atlanta, GA, 7-10 May.
Taylor, I. 1969 Content and Structure in Sentence Production. In Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 8/??: 170-175.
d'Urso, V. & V. Zammuner 1990 The perception of pause in question-answer pairs. In Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28/1: 41-43.
Voss, B. 1979 Hesitation phenomena as sources of perceptual errors for non-native speakers. In Language and Speech 22/??: 129-44.
Vrij, A. & F. Winkel 1991 Cultural Patterns in Dutch and Surinam Nonverbal Behavior: An Analysis of Simulated Police/Citizen Encounters. In Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 15/3: 169-184.
Vrugt, A. 1990 Negative Attitudes, Nonverbal Nehavior and Self-fulfilling Prophecy in Simulated Therapy Interviews. In Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 14/2: 77-86.
Vrugt, A. & A. Kerkstra 1982 Verschillen tussen mannen en vrouwen in non-verbaal gedrag [Differences between men and women in nonverbal behavior]. In Nederlands Tijdschrift voor de Psychologie en haar Grensgebieden 37/7: 393-429.
Webster, W. & E. Kramer 1968 Attitudes and Evaluational Reactions to Accented English Speech. In Journal of Social Psychology 75/??: 231-40.
Wennerstrom, A. 1994 Intonational Meaning in English Discourse: a Study of Non-Native Speakers. In Applied Linguistics 15/4: 399-420.
Wingate, M. 1984 Pause Loci in Stuttered and Normal Speech. In Journal of Fluency Disorders 9/3: 227-235.
Zeungler, J. & B. Bent 1991 Relative knowledge of content domain: an influence on native--non-native conversations. In Applied Linguistics 12/4: 397-415.

Books, unpublished dissertations, etc.

Aaronsen, D. and R. Reiber (eds.) 1979 Psycholinguistic Research: Implications and Applications. ????: Laurence Erlbaum Associates.
Appel, G. et al. 1980 A selected bibliography on temporal variables. Tubingen: Narr.
Butterworth, B. (ed.) 1980 Language Production, Vol 1. London: Academic Press.
Cairns, H. & C. Cairns. 1976 Psycholinguistics: A Cognitive View of Change. New York: Hold, Rinehart, and Winston.
Clark, H. & E. Clark 1977 Psychology and Language. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.
Crystal, D. & D. Davy 1969 Investigating English Style. London: Longman.
Dalton, P. & W.J. Hardcastle 1977 Disorders of fluency. London: Edward Arnold.
Dechert, D. & M. Raupach (eds.) 1980 Temporal Variables in Speech: Studies in Honour of Frieda Goldman-Eisler. The Hague: Mouton.
Eakins, B. & R. Eakins 1978 Sex Differences in Human Communication. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Faerch, C. & G. Kasper (eds.) 1983 Strategies in Interlanguage Communication. London: Longman.
Finegan, E. 1994 Language: its structure and use, Second Edition. New York: Harcourt Brace.
Hultfors, P. 1986 Reactions to Non-native English: Native English-Speakers' Assessments of Errors in the Use of English Made by Non-Native Users of the Language; Part 1 - Acceptability and Intelligibility. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International.
Leech, G. & J. Svartvik 1994 A Communicative Grammar of English, Second Edition. London: Longman.
Levinson, S. 1983 Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
??McNeill "Natural Processing Units of Speech"...
Richards, J., J. Platt, & H. Weber 1985 Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics. London: Longman.
Rivers, W. 1981 Teaching Foreign-Language Skills, Second Edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Rixon, S. 1986 Developing Listening Skills. London: Macmillan.
Schenkein, J. (ed.) 1978 Studies in the Organization of Conversational Interaction. New York: Academic.
Shriberg, E. 1994 Preliminaries to a theory of speech disfluencies. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley.
Stenstrom, A. 1994 An Introduction to Spoken Interaction. London and New York: Longman.


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Last Revised: 99/08/26


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